From Here to There

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Download From Here to There Glossary

Acceleration

The rate of change in speed or direction.

Airfoil

A surface designed to produce lift from the movement of air over it.

Air Pressure

The weight of the air in a given space. The more air, the higher the pressure; the less air, the lower the pressure.

Area

The amount of space taken up by a flat surface.

Buoyancy

The upward force exerted when an object is immersed in a fluid. This force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the object.

Cargo

Items carried by a vehicle.

Combustion

The process of converting fuel into energy, often by burning.

Compressed Air

Air that has been squeezed into a small space, creating high pressure.

Density

The amount of mass per unit volume.

Drag

The combination of all the forces that slow something down as it moves through a liquid or a gas.

Ejecting

Forcefully pushing or pulling matter out.

Energy

The ability to do work. It can come in many forms, including electrical, heat, mechanical (moving parts), and potential (stored energy).

Force

A push or a pull.

Friction

The force that tends to slow down moving objects that are touching.

Gas

A form of matter that has a variable shape and volume. At room temperature, air is a gas.

Gravity

The force of attraction between two masses. The force that attracts objects toward the center of the Earth.

Inertia

The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.

Headwind

A wind that hits a vehicle from the front, usually slowing it down.

Hydraulic

Powered by expanded or compressed liquids.

Inclined Plane

A flat surface that is slanted, like a ramp.

Lever

A stiff rod or plank that rotates around a fixed point, or fulcrum when an input force is applied. One example is a see-saw.

Levitation

The act of suspending something in midair, against gravity, without any visible external force or contact.

Lift

To move upwards.

Liquid

A form of matter that has a defined volume and variable shape. At room temperature, water is a liquid.

Magnetic

The ability to be affected by a force called magnetism, sometimes caused by a flow of electricity.

Mass

The amount of matter that a physical object contains.

Mechanical Advantage

The benefit created by a machine that enables people to do work while using less force.

Molecule

The smallest unit of a compound that can exist by itself and retain all its chemical properties.

Newton's Laws of Motion

The three laws of motion:

  1. An object at rest remains at rest. An object in motion remains in motion unless acted on by an outside force.
  2. A force is acting on an object causes an acceleration. Force = mass multiplied by acceleration
  3. With every force there is an equal, but opposite, force.

Pneumatic

Powered by expanded or compressed air.

Power

The amount of work done in a certain amount of time (Power = Work divided by Time).

Pressure

The force applied to an area, divided by the size of the area. Pressure can be applied to solids, liquids, or gases.

PSI

Pounds per Square Inch: One way to measure pressure. 14.7 psi = air pressure at sea level.

Pulley

A simple machine consisting of a rope running over a groove in a wheel. Pulling on the rope changes the direction of the lifting force. A pulley, or system of pulleys, make it easier to lift heavy loads by applying less force over greater distances.

Sail

A piece of cloth cut to various sizes and shapes. A sail is designed to catch and use the force of wind to propel a vehicle.

Screw

A cylinder surrounded by an inclined plane that spirals from top to bottom.

Simple Machine

Any device that requires the application of a single force to o work. Simple Machines are tools used to make work easier.

Solid

A form of matter that has a definite shape and volume. At room temperature, wood is a solid.

Speed

How fast an object is moving.

Surface

The outside of any solid or liquid.

Turbulence

The unstable motion of a liquid or a gas.

Wedge

An inclined plane with either one or two sloping sides that converts motion in one direction into a splitting motion.

Wheel & Axle

A round object or disk revolving around a central axis.

Work

The energy transferred by a force to a moving object (Work = Force multiplied by Distance).